Nearby galaxy centres with unusual populations of very massive stars

A new study of galaxies with data from the MaNGA survey shows that the initial mass function of stars, i.e. the mass distribution when they initially form, might not be as universal as widely assumed. The MPA study found an excess of very massive stars in some galaxies. An excess of radio sources in the sample might be an intriguing hint that a hidden population of black holes may exist in these galaxies. more

<strong>How do </strong><strong>star cluster</strong><strong>s</strong><strong> form in dwarf galaxies?</strong>

In the interstellar medium (ISM) of galaxies, stars form in small groups groups of a few hundred and clusters up to several million stars. A full theoretical model of this process and its impact on galaxy evolution is still in its infancy. MPA researches and their collaborators have developed a highly complex numerical model to simulate the multi-phase ISM and how star clusters emerge in dwarf galaxies. The supercomputer simulations show that the properties of the star clusters depend on how efficiently stars can form from the cold dense gas. Detailed post-processing then allowed the researchers to compare their results to observations. This demonstrates the scientific fidelity of the new model, its current limitations, and observational limitations on how well clusters can be detected in regions of high star formation activity. The studies are a major step towards a comprehensive model for star cluster formation. more

Galaxy formation with L-GALAXIES: modelling the environmental dependency of galaxy evolution

The colours and star formation rates of galaxies are strongly correlated with each other out to distances as large as 10 Megaparsecs. However, current galaxy formation models fail to reproduce these large-scale correlations accurately. Scientists from MPA, the University of Surrey, and Heidelberg University are in the process of updating the Munich galaxy formation model, L-GALAXIES, with a sophisticated and accurate method to model environmental effects for all galaxies. The most recent updated model is in significantly better agreement with observations than its predecessors and exhibits a stronger environmental dependency of galaxy properties out to several Megaparsecs from the centers of their dark matter haloes. more

<p>The cool circumgalactic medium in SDSS galaxies</p>

The gas in and around galaxies can be probed with absorption line studies using light from background quasars. Scientists at MPA have now used a large sample from the SDSS DR16 to automatically detect absorbers in background quasars and connect them with foreground galaxies. Their analysis shows that cool circumgalactic gas has a different physical origin for star-forming versus quiescent galaxies. more

<p>Astronomers find most distant Milky Way look-alike with gravitational lensing</p>

Astronomers at the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), have revealed an extremely distant and therefore very young galaxy that looks surprisingly like our Milky Way. The galaxy is so far away its light has taken more than 12 billion years to reach us: we see it as it was when the Universe was just 1.4 billion years old. It is also surprisingly unchaotic, contradicting theories that all galaxies in the early Universe were turbulent and unstable. This unexpected discovery challenges our understanding of how galaxies form, giving new insights into the past of our Universe. more

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