In observations of galaxy clusters, astronomers in collaboration with the MPA discovered a new class of cosmic radio sources. With the digital radio telescope Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) they received the longest radio waves that can be measured on Earth. They identified a remarkable "tail"behind a galaxy in the radio light, which must have been re-energized after it had faded away.
A team of astrophysicists from Queen’s University Belfast, the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics (MPA), and Monash University (Australia) has, for the first time, performed three-dimensional computer simulations that follow the evolution of a massive star in its final stages. The simulations show that the large-scale violent convective motions that stir the oxygen burning layer at the onset of core collapse can provide crucial support for the explosion of the star.
On 17 August 2017, two merging neutron stars were seen for the first time by their gravitational wave signal as well as high-energy gamma radiation. This simultaneous observation confirms that merging neutron stars are indeed the progenitors of short Gamma-Ray Bursts. Follow-up observations revealed light emission powered by the radioactive decay of heavy elements – a so-called kilonova, confirming theoretical predictions, also by scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, that these kinds of stellar collisions can be the cosmic origin of heavy elements such as gold and platinum.
Researchers at MPA examine here whether different explosion models are expected to leave clear imprints in such early observations of Type Ia supernovae that could be used in future photometric surveys to help shedding light on the progenitors and explosion mechanism of SNe Ia.
An international team of scientists from the Monash University (Melbourne, Australia), the Towson and Pittsburgh Universities (USA) and the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, has shed new light on the origins of the famous Tycho’s supernova. The research, published in Nature Astronomy, debunks the common view that Tycho’s supernova originated from a white dwarf, which had been slowly accreting matter from its companion in a binary system.
The centre of the Milky Way, Sgr A* experienced short but intense flares over the past few hundred years. The time delay caused by light propagation from Sgr A* to the surrounding clouds and then to us, allows MPA scientists to study Sgr A*’s past activity. At the same time, flares serve as an extremely powerful probe of molecular gas properties. In particular, the full 3D structure of molecular clouds and their density distribution on small scales can be reconstructed.
Using three-dimensional general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations, scientists at the MPA have studied thick accretion disks orbiting around black holes. They find that weak magnetic fields can suppress the development of large-scale over-densities in the accretion flow. The onset of magnetic turbulence reshapes the disk's structure and could even quench the gravitational-wave signal produced without magnetic fields.
The magnetic fields of the Milky Way cause electrons with nearly the speed of light to rotate and to emit radio waves. As consequence, this radiation should also "rotate" slightly, it is circularly polarized. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics and colleagues have now predicted some properties of this polarization and created a "wanted poster" to allow targeted searches.
Stars exploding as supernovae are the main sources of heavy chemical elements in the Universe. Using elaborate computer simulations, a team of researchers from the MPA and RIKEN in Japan were able to explain the recently measured spatial distributions of radioactive titanium and nickel in Cassiopeia A. The computer models yield strong support for the theoretical idea that such stellar death events can be initiated and powered by neutrinos escaping from the neutron star left behind at the origin of the explosion.
The WMAP science team has received the 2018 Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics for detailed maps of the early universe that greatly improved our knowledge of the evolution of the cosmos and the fluctuations that seeded the formation of galaxies. The prize will be shared among the entire 27-member WMAP experimental team including Eiichiro Komatsu, director at the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics in Garching.
Two junior MPA scientists receive the Kippenhahn Award for the best MPA student publication in 2016. Titouan Lazeyras receives the prize for his paper "Large-scale assembly bias of dark matter halos" which presents high-precision measurements of halo assembly bias. Dijana Vrbanec was awarded for her paper "Predictions for the 21 cm-galaxy cross-power spectrum observable with LOFAR and Subaru"; finding that a clear anti-correlation should be seen on scales larger than the typical separation distance between galaxy clusters.
Dr. Eleonore Trefftz, Emeritus Scientific Member of the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Garching, passed away on 22 October 2017 at the age of 97. With Eleonore Trefftz, the Max Planck Society loses a remarkable researcher and person.
From 1st October 2017, Volker Springel is a new director at the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics and head of the "Numerical Astrophysics" department, initially with a partial appointment and from 1st August 2018 full-time. The theoretical astrophysicist, whose main research focus is on structure formation in the Universe and the simulation of galaxies, returns to Garching and the institute where his scientific career began.