Astrophysicists from Heidelberg, Garching, and the USA gained new insights into the formation and evolution of galaxies. They calculated how black holes influence the distribution of dark matter, how heavy elements are produced and distributed throughout the cosmos, and where magnetic fields originate. This was possible by developing and programming a new simulation model for the universe, which created the most extensive simulations of this kind to date.
Modified gravity models often contain some form of screening to reduce to general relativity in our immediate cosmic neighbourhood. Scalar waves from astrophysical or cosmological events were thought to significantly disrupt this screening of the Solar System, invalidating previously viable modified gravity models. MPA scientists show that disruptions are actually generally negligible for physically relevant setups.
Neutron stars are the densest objects in the Universe; however, their exact characteristics remain unknown. Using recent observations and simulations, an international team of scientists including researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics (MPA) has managed to narrow down the size of these stars. Thus the scientists were able to exclude a number of theoretical descriptions for the neutron star matter.
In observations of galaxy clusters, astronomers in collaboration with the MPA discovered a new class of cosmic radio sources. With the digital radio telescope Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) they received the longest radio waves that can be measured on Earth. They identified a remarkable "tail"behind a galaxy in the radio light, which must have been re-energized after it had faded away.
A team of astrophysicists from Queen’s University Belfast, the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics (MPA), and Monash University (Australia) has, for the first time, performed three-dimensional computer simulations that follow the evolution of a massive star in its final stages. The simulations show that the large-scale violent convective motions that stir the oxygen burning layer at the onset of core collapse can provide crucial support for the explosion of the star.
On 17 August 2017, two merging neutron stars were seen for the first time by their gravitational wave signal as well as high-energy gamma radiation. This simultaneous observation confirms that merging neutron stars are indeed the progenitors of short Gamma-Ray Bursts. Follow-up observations revealed light emission powered by the radioactive decay of heavy elements – a so-called kilonova, confirming theoretical predictions, also by scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, that these kinds of stellar collisions can be the cosmic origin of heavy elements such as gold and platinum.
Researchers at MPA examine here whether different explosion models are expected to leave clear imprints in such early observations of Type Ia supernovae that could be used in future photometric surveys to help shedding light on the progenitors and explosion mechanism of SNe Ia.
The WMAP science team has received the 2018 Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics for detailed maps of the early universe that greatly improved our knowledge of the evolution of the cosmos and the fluctuations that seeded the formation of galaxies. The prize will be shared among the entire 27-member WMAP experimental team including Eiichiro Komatsu, director at the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics in Garching.