Members

Project funded:

Michael Gabler (Postdoc)
Tobias Melson (Postdoc)
Naveen Yadav (Postdoc)
Robert Bollig (PhD student)
Robert Glas (PhD student)
Ninoy Rahman (PhD student)


Core Personnel:


Ewald Müller (Scientific staff member)
Thomas Ertl (Postdoc)
Georg Stockinger (PhD student)


Former Members:

Alexander Summa (Postdoc until 08/2017)
Maxime Viallet (Postdoc until 07/2016)


External Collaborators:

Thierry Foglizzo (CEA, Saclay)
Alex Heger (Monash Centre for Astrophysics)
Chuck Horowitz (Univ. Indiana)
Oliver Just (RIKEN, Tokyo)
Gabriel Martinez-Pinedo (TU Darmstadt)
Bernhard Müller (Queen's University Belfast)
Martin Obergaulinger (Univ. Valencia)
Georg Raffelt (MPP Munich)
Achim Schwenk (TU Darmstadt)
Irene Tamborra (GRAPPA & Univ. Amsterdam)
Shinya Wanajo (RIKEN, Tokyo)
Stan Woosley (UCSC, Santa Cruz)
Annop Wongwathanarat (RIKEN, Tokyo)
Victor Utrobin (ITEP, Moscow)

Recent research highlights

Latest three-dimensional computer simulations are closing in on the solution of an decades-old problem: how do massive stars die in gigantic supernova explosions? Since the mid-1960s, astronomers thought that neutrinos, elementary particles that are radiated in huge numbers by the newly formed neutron star, could be the ones to energize the blast wave that disrupts the star. However, only now the power of modern supercomputers has made it possible to actually demonstrate the viability of this neutrino-driven mechanism.

Three-dimensional computer simulations support neutrinos as cause of supernova explosions

Latest three-dimensional computer simulations are closing in on the solution of an decades-old problem: how do massive stars die in gigantic supernova explosions? Since the mid-1960s, astronomers thought that neutrinos, elementary particles that are radiated in huge numbers by the newly formed neutron star, could be the ones to energize the blast wave that disrupts the star. However, only now the power of modern supercomputers has made it possible to actually demonstrate the viability of this neutrino-driven mechanism.

[more]
For the first time, scientists at the MPA have been able to simulate a supernova explosion in all three dimensions with detailed physical input.

Computer simulation confirms supernova mechanism in three dimensions

April 01, 2015

For the first time, scientists at the MPA have been able to simulate a supernova explosion in all three dimensions with detailed physical input.
[more]
The neutron star that is born at the center of a collapsing and exploding massive star radiates huge numbers of neutrinos produced by particle reactions in the extremely hot and dense matter. Three-dimensional supercomputer simulations at the very forefront of current modelling efforts reveal the stunning and unexpected possibility that this neutrino emission can develop a hemispheric (dipolar) asymmetry.

A new neutrino-emission asymmetry in forming neutron stars

The neutron star that is born at the center of a collapsing and exploding massive star radiates huge numbers of neutrinos produced by particle reactions in the extremely hot and dense matter. Three-dimensional supercomputer simulations at the very forefront of current modelling efforts reveal the stunning and unexpected possibility that this neutrino emission can develop a hemispheric (dipolar) asymmetry.
MPA researchers managed for the first time to reproduce the asymmetries and fast-moving iron clumps of observed supernovae by complex computer simulations in all three dimensions.

How a supernova obtains its shape

MPA researchers managed for the first time to reproduce the asymmetries and fast-moving iron clumps of observed supernovae by complex computer simulations in all three dimensions.

Modeling Stellar Collapse and Explosion: Evolving Progenitor Stars to Supernova Remnants

Supernovae are among the brightest and most violent explosive events in the Universe. They are not only the birth sites of neutron stars and black holes; they also produce and disseminate heavy chemical elements up to iron and possibly even nuclear species heavier than iron, which could be forged during the explosion. Understanding the explosion mechanism of massive stars is therefore of fundamental importance to better define the role of supernovae in the cosmic cycle of matter.

Neutrinos are thought to be responsible for triggering the supernova explosions of the majority of massive stars.  These elementary particles are radiated in huge numbers by the hot, newly formed neutron star. Their energy is far enough to power a supernova even if only one  percent of them gets reabsorbed behind the blast wave of the explosion. Because of the complexity and non-linear nature of the involved processes -- non-radial hydrodynamic instabilities and highly complicated neutrino reactions must be described with high accuracy -- numerical simulations play  a crucial role to explore and consolidate this explosion mechanism through neutrino heating.  Only very recently the increasing power of modern supercomputers has made it possible to perform supernova simulations in all three spatial dimensions, i.e., without any artificial constraints of the  symmetry. A new level of realism in such simulations has thus been reached and brings us closer to the solution of a longstanding but still unsettled problem in stellar astrophysics.

Asymmetries in simulation and observation: Comparison of a 3D core-collapse supernova model (a) with the 330-year-old supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (b) in our Galaxy. The observed asymmetries in the remnant phase can be traced back to the earliest phases of the explosion <em>(Credit: a) Nicolay J. Hammer, H.-T. Janka, E. M&uuml;ller (MPA), Markus Rampp (RZG), b) NASA/CXC/SAO).</em>
Asymmetries in simulation and observation: Comparison of a 3D core-collapse supernova model (a) with the 330-year-old supernova remnant Cassiopeia A (b) in our Galaxy. The observed asymmetries in the remnant phase can be traced back to the earliest phases of the explosion (Credit: a) Nicolay J. Hammer, H.-T. Janka, E. Müller (MPA), Markus Rampp (RZG), b) NASA/CXC/SAO). [less]

Much hope rests on a next supernova in our Milky Way, whose neutrinos and gravitational waves could be measured in large experimental facilities on Earth, thus allowing for a direct  glimpse into the very heart of the explosion and the processes that play a role there. But also a number of young and well observed supernova remnants in our Galactic neighborhood offer the possibility to gain information of the first moments of  the explosion, although in a much more indirect way.  Kinetic energy, mass, chemical composition, and circumstellar environment of the remnant reflect basic properties of the supernova and of its stellar progenitor, while velocity and spin of the neutron star as well as asymmetries of the ejected gas carry imprints of the hydrodynamic instabilities that have supported the initiation of the anisotropic blast wave.

This ERC-funded project (ERC-AdG No. 341157-COCO2CASA) has the goal to study the stellar death from convective shell burning during the final stages of the progenitor, through core collapse, explosion, and long-time evolution of the outburst towards the remnant stage of the supernova by three-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling. Special focus will be directed to the remnants of Crab, Cassiopeia A and Supernova 1987A, whose detailed observations reveal a wealth of information that can be linked back to the earliest stages of the explosion and thus could provide clues on the explosion mechanism. The sophisticated 3D explosion modeling will be performed with all relevant microphysics and will also yield state-of-the-art predictions of neutrino and gravitational-wave signals from stellar collapse and explosion.

The ERC-funded project is subdivided into three main research topics. More information and recent results can be found via the following links:

1) 3D progenitor modeling

2) 3D explosion modeling

3) 3D long-time supernova and remnant modeling

Topical workshop sponsored by the ERC project

Workshop on the Progenitor-Supernova-Remnant Connection (July 24-28, 2017, Ringberg Castle)

Data Archive

The Garching Core-Collapse Supernova Archive

Funding

This project receives funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement ERC-AdG 341157-COCO2CASA.

 

Physical Sciences and Engineering
  → PE9 Universe Sciences
       → PE9_6 Stars and stellar systems

Computer time grants

Publications

Janka, Hans-Thomas 2017, The Astrophysical Journal Neutron Star Kicks by the Gravitational Tug-boat Mechanism in Asymmetric Supernova Explosions: Progenitor and Explosion Dependence

Janka, H.-Th. 2017, ArXiv e-prints Neutrino-driven Explosions

Janka, H.-Th. 2017, ArXiv e-prints Neutrino Emission from Supernovae

Tamborra, Irene, Huedepohl, Lorenz, Raffelt, Georg, & Janka, Hans-Thomas 2017, ArXiv e-prints Flavor-dependent neutrino angular distribution in core-collapse supernovae

Wanajo, Shinya, Müller, Bernhard, Janka, Hans-Thomas, & Heger, Alexander 2017, ArXiv e-prints Nucleosynthesis in the Innermost Ejecta of Neutrino-Drive Supernova Explosions in Two Dimensions

Müller, Bernhard, Viallet, Maxime, Heger, Alexander, & Janka, Hans-Thomas 2016, The Astrophysical Journal The Last Minutes of Oxygen Shell Burning in a Massive Star

Bartl, A., Bollig, R., Janka, H.-T., & Schwenk, A. 2016, Physical Review D Impact of nucleon-nucleon bremsstrahlung rates beyond one-pion exchange

Guilet, Jerome, Bauswein, Andreas, Just, Oliver, & Janka, Hans-Thomas 2016, ArXiv e-prints Magnetorotational instability in neutron star mergers: impact of neutrinos

Wongwathanarat, A., Janka, H.-Th., Mueller, E., Pllumbi, E., & Wanajo, S. 2016, ArXiv e-prints Production and Distribution of 44Ti and 56Ni in a Three-dimensional Supernova Model Resembling Cassiopeia A

Cristini, Andrea, Meakin, Casey, Hirschi, Raphael, Arnett, David, Georgy, Cyril, & Viallet, Maxime 2016, ArXiv e-prints 3D Hydrodynamic Simulations of Carbon Burning in Massive Stars

Janka, Hans-Thomas, Melson, Tobias, & Summa, Alexander 2016, Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science Physics of Core-Collapse Supernovae in Three Dimensions: A Sneak Preview

Gabler, Michael, Cerdá-Durán, Pablo, Stergioulas, Nikolaos, Font, José A., & Müller, Ewald 2016, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Coherent magneto-elastic oscillations in superfluid magnetars

Andresen, Haakon, Mueller, Bernhard, Mueller, Ewald, & Janka, Hans-Thomas 2016, ArXiv e-prints Gravitational Wave Signals from 3D Neutrino Hydrodynamics Simulations of Core-Collapse Supernovae

Summa, Alexander, Hanke, Florian, Janka, Hans-Thomas, Melson, Tobias, Marek, Andreas, & Müller, Bernhard 2016, The Astrophysical Journal Progenitor-dependent Explosion Dynamics in Self-consistent, Axisymmetric Simulations of Neutrino-driven Core-collapse Supernovae

Prat, V., Guilet, J., Viallet, M., & Müller, E. 2016, Astronomy and Astrophysics Shear mixing in stellar radiative zones. II. Robustness of numerical simulations

Gabler, M., Janka, H.-T., & Wongwathanara, A. 2016, Supernova Remnants: An Odyssey in Space after Stellar Death The first few months of a supernova remnant

Terada, Y., Maeda, K., Fukazawa, Y., Bamba, A., Ueda, Y., Katsuda, S., Enoto, T., Takahashi, T., Tamagawa, T., Röpke, F. K., Summa, A., & Diehl, R. 2016, The Astrophysical Journal Measurements of the Soft Gamma-Ray Emission from SN2014J with Suzaku

Miller Bertolami, M. M., Viallet, M., Prat, V., Barsukow, W., & Weiss, A. 2016, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society On the relevance of bubbles and potential flows for stellar convection

Sukhbold, Tuguldur, Ertl, T., Woosley, S. E., Brown, Justin M., & Janka, H.-T. 2016, The Astrophysical Journal Core-collapse Supernovae from 9 to 120 Solar Masses Based on Neutrino-powered Explosions

Geroux, C., Baraffe, I., Viallet, M., Goffrey, T., Pratt, J., Constantino, T., Folini, D., Popov, M. V., & Walder, R. 2016, Astronomy and Astrophysics Multi-dimensional structure of accreting young stars

Cristini, A., Meakin, C., Hirschi, R., Arnett, D., Georgy, C., & Viallet, M. 2016, Physica Scripta Linking 1D evolutionary to 3D hydrodynamical simulations of massive stars

Ertl, T., Janka, H.-Th., Woosley, S. E., Sukhbold, T., & Ugliano, M. 2016, The Astrophysical Journal A Two-parameter Criterion for Classifying the Explodability of Massive Stars by the Neutrino-driven Mechanism

Viallet, M., Goffrey, T., Baraffe, I., Folini, D., Geroux, C., Popov, M. V., Pratt, J., & Walder, R. 2016, Astronomy and Astrophysics A Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov method for time-implicit multidimensional hydrodynamics. Physics-based preconditioning for sound waves and thermal diffusion

Mirizzi, A., Tamborra, I., Janka, H.-Th., Saviano, N., Scholberg, K., Bollig, R., Hüdepohl, L., & Chakraborty, S. 2016, Nuovo Cimento Rivista Serie Supernova neutrinos: production, oscillations and detection

Just, O., Obergaulinger, M., & Janka, H.-T. 2015, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society A new multidimensional, energy-dependent two-moment transport code for neutrino-hydrodynamics

Obergaulinger, M., Janka, H.-T., & Aloy, M. A. 2015, Numerical Modeling of Space Plasma Flows ASTRONUM-2014 Magnetic Field Amplification in Non-Rotating Stellar Core Collapse

Utrobin, V. P., Wongwathanarat, A., Janka, H.-Th., & Müller, E. 2015, Astronomy and Astrophysics Supernova 1987A: neutrino-driven explosions in three dimensions and light curves

Arnett, W. David, Meakin, Casey, Viallet, Maxime, Campbell, Simon W., Lattanzio, John C., & Mocák, Miroslav 2015, The Astrophysical Journal Beyond Mixing-length Theory: A Step Toward 321D

Melson, Tobias, Janka, Hans-Thomas, Bollig, Robert, Hanke, Florian, Marek, Andreas, & Müller, Bernhard 2015, The Astrophysical Journal Neutrino-driven Explosion of a 20 Solar-mass Star in Three Dimensions Enabled by Strange-quark Contributions to Neutrino-Nucleon Scattering

Viallet, M., Meakin, C., Prat, V., & Arnett, D. 2015, Astronomy and Astrophysics Toward a consistent use of overshooting parametrizations in 1D stellar evolution codes

Wongwathanarat, A., Müller, E., & Janka, H.-Th. 2015, Astronomy and Astrophysics Three-dimensional simulations of core-collapse supernovae: from shock revival to shock breakout

Melson, Tobias, Janka, Hans-Thomas, & Marek, Andreas 2015, The Astrophysical Journal Neutrino-driven Supernova of a Low-mass Iron-core Progenitor Boosted by Three-dimensional Turbulent Convection

Obergaulinger, M., Janka, H.-Th., & Aloy, M. A. 2014, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Magnetic field amplification and magnetically supported explosions of collapsing, non-rotating stellar cores

Gabler, Michael, Cerdá-Durán, Pablo, Stergioulas, Nikolaos, Font, José A., & Müller, Ewald 2014, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Modulating the magnetosphere of magnetars by internal magneto-elastic oscillations

Tamborra, Irene, Hanke, Florian, Janka, Hans-Thomas, Müller, Bernhard, Raffelt, Georg G., & Marek, Andreas 2014, The Astrophysical Journal Self-sustained Asymmetry of Lepton-number Emission: A New Phenomenon during the Supernova Shock-accretion Phase in Three Dimensions

Tamborra, Irene, Raffelt, Georg, Hanke, Florian, Janka, Hans-Thomas, & Müller, Bernhard 2014, Physical Review D Neutrino emission characteristics and detection opportunities based on three-dimensional supernova simulations

 
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